Thirsty lion
Another African sunset
Thinking about crossing
Lilac-breasted roller
Baboons and buffalo

(pdfs in blue)


Isbell, L.A. Primate Socioecology: Shifting Perspectives. Available July 2, 2024 from Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.


Arlet, M.E., Anand, A., Saikia, A., Kaasik, A., Sirigeri, S., Isbell, L.A., & Singh, M. Behavior of mothers after infant loss in bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). International Journal of Primatology. (DOI: 10.1007/s10764-023-00395-2).

Parker, D.M.,…Isbell, L.A.,…Wilmers, C. (42 authors). The implications of large home range size in a solitary felid. Journal of Mammalogy. (DOI:10.1093/jmammal/gyad074).

Nams, V.O. … Isbell L.A., …Beukes, M. (67 authors). Spatial patterns of two large African cats: a large-scale study on density, home range size, and overlap, of both lions and leopards. Mammal Review 53:49-64 (DOI:10.1111/mam.12309).


Anand, A., Balakrishna, N., Singh, M., Isbell, L.A., Sirigeri, S., Saikia, A., & Arlet, M.E. Infant adoptions in wild bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Primates 63:627-635 (DOI:10.1007/s10329-022-01017-w).

Isbell, L.A., Pantaleon, R., & Bradshaw, B. Black, Brown, and White: Stories Straight Outta Compton. Bobely Books, Davis, CA.

Broekman, M., … Isbell, L.A., … Tucker, M.A. (88 authors). Evaluating expert-based habitat suitability information of terrestrial mammals with GPS-tracking data. Global Ecology and Biogeography 31:1526-1541 (DOI:10.1111/geb.13523).

Snider, M.H., Athreya, V.R., Balme, G.A., Bidner, LR., Farhadinia, M.S., Fattebert, J., Gompper, M.E., Gubbi, S., Hunter, L.T.B., Isbell, L.A., Macdonald, D.W., Odden, M., Owen, C.R., Slotow, R., Spalton, J.A., Stein, A.B., Steyn, V., Vanak, A.T., Weise, F.J., Wilmers, C.C., & Kays, R.
Home range variation in leopards living across the human density gradient. Journal of Mammalogy 102:1138-1148 (DOI: 10.1093/jmammal/gyab068).

Isbell, L.A., Bidner, L.R., Loftus, J.C., Kimuyu, D., & Young, T.P. Absentee owners and overlapping home ranges in a territorial species. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 75:21 (DOI: 10.1007/s00265-020-02945-7).

Lau, A., Dufek, M.E., Franzetti, T.J., Bales, K.L., & Isbell, L.A. Titi monkey neophobia and visual abilities allow for fast responses to novel stimuli. Scientific Reports 11:2578 (DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-82116-4).

Suire, A., Isbell, L.A., Bidner, L.R., Shinoda, Y., Akasaka, M., & Matsumoto-Oda, A. Influence of rainfall on sleeping site choice by a group of anubis baboons (Papio anubis). American Journal of Primatology 83:e23223 (DOI: 10.1002/ajp.23223).

Noonan, M., … Isbell, L.A., … & Calabrese, J. (79 co-authors). Effects of body size on estimation of mammalian area requirements. Conservation Biology 34:1017-1028 (DOI: 10.1111.cobi.13495).

Khwaja, H., … Isbell, L.A., … & Challender, D.W.S. (62 authors). Pangolins in global camera trap data: implications for ecological monitoring. Global Ecology and Conservation 20:e00769.

Arlet, G.E., Veromann, L.-L., Isbell, L.A., Mänd, R., & Lemasson, A. Maternal care in free-ranging arboreal grey-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena johnstoni) in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Folia Primatologica 90:441-455.

Isbell, L.A., Bidner, L.R., Omondi, G., Mutinda, M., & Matsumoto-Oda, A. Capture, immobilization, and GPS collaring of olive baboons (Papio anubis) and vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus): lessons learned and suggested best practices. American Journal of Primatology 81:e22997.

Taniguchi, H., Isbell, L.A., Bidner, L.R., & Matsumoto-Oda, A. Complete rectal prolapse in wild anubis baboons (Papio anubis). Journal of Medical Primatology 48:179-181.

Miller, E.A., Johnson, T.R., Omondi, G., Atwill, E.R., Isbell, L.A., McCowan, B., & VanderWaal, K. Assessing transmission of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in wild giraffe contact networks. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 85:e02136-18.

Linden, J.B., McCowan, B.J., Capitanio, J.P., & Isbell, L.A. Male-inflicted wounds have opposite effects on hair cortisol for captive male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) following new group formation. Primates 60:51-62.


Bidner, L.R., Matsumoto-Oda, A., & Isbell, L.A. The role of sleeping sites in the predator-prey dynamics of leopards and olive baboons. American Journal of Primatology 80:e22932.

Linden, J.B., Capitanio, J.P., McCowan, B.J., & Isbell, L.A. Coping style and cortisol levels in infancy predict hair cortisol following new group formation in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 80:e22938.

Van Cleave, E., Bidner, L.R., Ford, A.T., Caillaud, D.C., Wilmers, C.C., & Isbell, L.A. Diel patterns of movement activity and habitat use by leopards (Panthera pardus pardus) living in a human-dominated landscape in central Kenya. Biological Conservation 226:224-237.

Isbell, L.A., Bidner, L.R., Van Cleave, E.K., Matsumoto-Oda, A., & Crofoot, M.C. GPS-identified vulnerabilities of savannah-woodland primates to leopard predation and their implications for early hominins. Journal of Human Evolution 118:1-13.

Tucker, M.A., … Isbell, L.A., … Mueller, T. (114 co-authors). 2018. Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements. Science 359:466-469.

Isbell, L.A. Grouping patterns in nonhuman primates. In The International Encyclopedia of Biological Anthropology. (W. Trevathan, ed.), pp. 676-677. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Isbell, L.A. Socioecological model. In The International Encyclopedia of Biological Anthropology (W. Trevathan, ed.), pp. 1441-1444. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Wilmers, C.C., Isbell, L.A., Suraci, J., & Williams, T.M. Energetics-informed behavioral states reveal the drive to kill in African leopards. Ecosphere. DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.1850

Isbell, L.A., Bidner, L.R., Crofoot, M.C., Matsumoto-Oda, A., & Farine, D.R. GPS-identified, low-level nocturnal activity of vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) and olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Laikipia, Kenya.  American Journal of Physical Anthropology 164:203-211.  

Isbell, L.A. Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer. In The International Encyclopedia of Primatology (A. Fuentes, ed.). John Wiley and Sons.  DOI: 10.1002/9781119179313.wbprim0297

Isbell, L.A. Socioecological model. In The International Encyclopedia of Primatology (A. Fuentes, ed.). John Wiley and Sons.  DOI: 10.1002/9781119179313.wbprim0028

Isbell, L.A. Grouping patterns. In The International Encyclopedia of Primatology (A. Fuentes, ed.). John Wiley and Sons.  DOI: 10.1002/9781119179313.wbprim0029

Porter A.M., Grote M.N., Isbell, L.A., Fernandez-Duque, E., & Di Fiore, A. Delayed dispersal and immigration in equatorial sakis (Pithecia aequatorialis): factors in the transition from pair- to group-living. Folia Primatologica 88:11-27.

Van Strien, J.W. & Isbell, L.A. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human ERP study. Scientific Reports 7:46331 |

Soares S.C., Maior R.S., Isbell, L.A., Tomaz, C., & Nishijo H. Fast detector/first responder: interactions between the superior colliculus-pulvinar pathway and stimuli relevant to primates.  Frontiers in Neuroscience: Systems Biology 11:67 |

Isbell, L.A. & Etting, S.F. Scales drive visual detection, attention, and memory of snakes in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). Primates 58:121-129.

Isbell, L.A. & Bidner, L.R. 2016. Vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) alarm calls to leopards (Panthera pardus) function as a predator deterrent.  Behaviour 153:591-606.

VanderWaal, K.L., Obanda, V.O., Omondi, G.P., McCowan, B., Wang, H., Fushing, H., & Isbell, L.A. The “strength of weak ties” and helminth infection in giraffe social networks. Behavioral Ecology 27:1190-1197.

Le, Q.V., Isbell, L.A., Matsumoto, J., Le, V.Q., Nishimaru, H., Hori, E., Maior, R.S., Tomaz, C., Ono, T., & Nishijo, H. Snakes elicit earlier, and monkey faces, later, gamma oscillations in macaque pulvinar neurons. Scientific Reports 6:20595.

Porter A.M., Grote M.N., Isbell, L.A., Fernandez-Duque, E., & Di Fiore, A. A saki saga: dynamic and disruptive relationships among Pithecia aequatorialis in eastern Ecuador, and functions of multiple adult males in saki groups. Folia Primatologica 86:455-473.

Arlet, M.E., Isbell, L.A., Kaasik A., Molleman, F., Chancellor, R.L., Chapman, C.A., Mänd, R., & Carey, J.R. Determinants of reproductive performance among female gray-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena) in Kibale National Park, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology 36:55-73.

Arlet, M.E., Chapman, C.A., Isbell, L.A., Molleman, F., Mänd, R., Hõrak, P, & Carey, J.R. Social and ecological correlates of parasitic infections in adult male gray-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena). International Journal of Primatology 36:967-986.

Le Q.V., Isbell, L.A., Matsumoto, J., Quang, L.V., Hori, E., Tran, A.H., Maior, R.S., Tomaz, C., Ono, T., & Nishijo, H. Monkey pulvinar neurons fire differentially to snake postures. PLoS ONE 9:e114258. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114258.

Etting, S.F. & Isbell, L.A. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) use snake posture to assess level of threat. Ethology 120:1177-1184.

Ford, A.T., Goheen, J.R., Otieno, T.O., Bidner, L., Isbell, L.A., Palmer, T.M., Ward, D., Woodroffe, R., & Pringle, R.M. Large carnivores make savanna tree communities less thorny. Science 346:346-349.

Arlet, M.E., Isbell, L.A., Molleman, F., Kaasik, A., Chancellor, R.L., Chapman, C.A., Mänd, R., & Carey, J.R. Maternal investment and infant survival in gray-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena). International Journal of Primatology 35:476-490.

Etting, S.F., Isbell, L.A., & Grote, M.N. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).American Journal of Primatology 76:135-145.

VanderWaal, K.L., Atwill, E.R., Isbell, L.A., & McCowan, B. Linking social and pathogen transmission networks using microbial genetics in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Journal of Animal Ecology 83:406-414.

VanderWaal, K.L., Wang, H., McCowan, B., Fushing, H., & Isbell, L.A. Multi-level social organization and space use in reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Behavioral Ecology 25:17-26.

VanderWaal, K.L., Atwill, E.R., Isbell, L.A., & McCowan, B. Quantifying pathogen transmission networks in wild and domestic ungulates in Kenya. Biological Conservation 169:136-146.

Le, Q.V., Isbell, L.A., Nguyen, M.N., Matsumoto J., Hori, E., Maior, R.S., Tomaz, C., Tran, A.H., Ono, T., & Nishijo, H. Pulvinar neurons reveal neurobiological evidence of past selection for rapid detection of snakes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110:19000-19005.

Arlet, M.E., Molleman, F., Isbell, L.A., Chancellor, R.L., Carey, J.R., & Mänd, R. Correlations between social context and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in free-ranging female gray-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus  albigena) in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Folia Biologica 61:239-246.

Isbell, L.A. Erythrocebus patas Patas monkey. In The Mammals of Africa: Vol. II Primates (T.M. Butynski, J.S. Kingdon, and J. Kalina, eds.). Bloomsbury Publishing, London, pp. 257-264.

Isbell, L.A. & Jaffe, K.L.E. Chlorocebus pygerythrus Vervet monkey. In The Mammals of Africa: Vol II Primates (T.M. Butynski, J.S. Kingdon, and J. Kalina, eds.). Bloomsbury Publishing, London, pp. 277-283.

Isbell, L.A., Rothman, J.M., Young, P.J., & Rudolph, K. Nutritional benefits of Crematogaster mimosae ants and Acacia drepanolobium gum for patas monkeys and vervets in Laikipia, Kenya. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 150:286-300.

Isbell, L.A., Young, T.P., & Harcourt, A.H. Stag parties linger: continued gender bias in a female-rich scientific discipline. PLoS ONE 7:e49682.

Isbell, L.A. Re-evaluating the Ecological Constraints model with red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles). Behaviour 149:493-529.

Bunce, J.A., Isbell, L.A., Grote M.N., & Jacobs, G. Color vision variation and foraging behavior in wild Neotropical titi monkeys (Callicebus brunneus): possible mediating roles for spatial memory and reproductive status. International Journal of Primatology 32:10581075.

Adiseshan, A., Adiseshan, T., & Isbell, L.A. Affiliative relationships and reciprocity among adult male bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) at Arunachala Hill, India. American Journal of Primatology 73:1107-1113.

Beisner, B.A. & Isbell, L.A. Factors affecting aggression among females in captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 73:1152-1159.

Arlet, A.E., Kaasik, A., Molleman, F., Isbell, L.A., Carey, J.R., & Mänd, R. Social factors increase fecal testosterone levels in wild male gray-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena). Hormones and Behavior 59:605-611.

Jaffe, K.E. & Isbell, L.A. The guenons: polyspecific associations in socioecological context. In Primates in Perspective, 2nd Edition (C.J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K.C. MacKinnon, S.K. Bearder, and R.M. Stumpf, eds.). Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 277-300.

Bunce, J.A., Isbell, L.A., Neitz, M., Bonci, D., Surridge, A., Jacobs, G., & Smith, D.G. Characterization of opsin gene alleles affecting color vision in a wild population of titi monkeys (Callicebus brunneus). American Journal of Primatology 73:189-196.

Jaffe, K.E. & Isbell, L.A. Ranging and social behavior after a predator-induced group fusioin in wild vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) in Laikipia, Kenya. American Journal of Primatology 72:634-644.

Isbell, L.AThe Fruit, the Tree, and the Serpent: Why We See So Well.  Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Beisner, B.A. & Isbell, L.A. Movement ecology in a captive environment: the effects of ground substrate on captive rhesus macaques, Macaca mulattaAnimal Behaviour 78:1269-1277.

Chancellor, R.L. & Isbell, L.A. Food site residence time and female competitive relationships in wild gray-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63:1447-1258.

De Jong, Y.A., Butynski, T.M., Isbell, L.A., & Lewis, C. Decline of the geographical range of the southern patas monkey Erythrocebus patas baumstarki in Tanzania. Oryx 43:267-274.

Beisner, B.A. & Isbell, L.A. Factors influencing hair loss among captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 119:91-100.

Pinter-Wollman, N., Isbell, L.A., & Hart, L.A. Assessing translocation outcome: comparing behavioral and physiological aspects of translocated and resident African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Biological Conservation 142:1116-1124.

Jack, K.M. & Isbell, L.A. Dispersal in primates: advancing an individualized approach. Behaviour 146:429-436.

Schoof, V.A.M., Jack, K.M., & Isbell, L.A. What traits promote male parallel dispersal in primates? Behaviour 146:701-726.

Isbell, L.A., Young,T.P., Jaffe, K.E., Carlson, A.A., & Chancellor, R.L. Demography and life histories of sympatric patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) in Laikipia, Kenya. International Journal of Primatology 30:103-124.

Pinter-Wollman, N., Isbell, L.A., & Hart, L.A. The relationship between social behavior and habitat familiarity in African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276:1009-1014.

Arlet, M.E. & Isbell, L.A. Variation in behavioral and hormonal responses of adult male gray-cheeked mangabey (Lophocebus albigena) to crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) in Kibale National Park, Uganda.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63:491-199.

Jaffe, K.E. & Isbell, L.A. After the fire: benefits of reduced ground cover for vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops).  American Journal of Primatology 71:252-260.

Chancellor, R.L. & Isbell, L.A. Female grooming markets in a population of gray-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena). Behavioral Ecology 20:79-86.

Arlet, M.E., Grote, M., Molleman, F., Isbell, L.A., & Carey, J.R. Reproductive tactics influence cortisol levels in individual male gray-cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebus albigena). Hormones and Behavior 55:210-216.

Beisner, B.A. & Isbell, L.A. Ground substrate affects activity budgets and hair loss in captive outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 70:1160-1168.

Off, E.C., Isbell, L.A., & Young, T.P. Population density and habitat preferences of the Kenya lesser galago (Galago senegalensis braccatus Elliot, 1907) along the Ewaso Nyiro River, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 97:109-116.

Chancellor, R.L. & Isbell, L.A. Punishment and competition over food in captive rhesus macaques, Macaca mulattaAnimal Behaviour 75:1939-1947.

Isbell, L.A. & Young, T.P. Interspecific and temporal variation of ant species within Acacia drepanolobium ant domatia, a staple food of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Laikipia, Kenya. American Journal of Primatology 69:1387-1398.

Isbell, L.A. & Chism, J. Distribution and abundance of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Laikipia, Kenya, 1979-2004. American Journal of Primatology 69:1223-1235.

Isbell, L.A. Snakes as agents of evolutionary change in primate brains. Journal of Human Evolution 51:1-35.

Isbell, L.A. Live fast, die young. National Wildlife June/July:29K-36K.

Isbell, L.A. Snakes on the brain. New York Times (3 September, Section 4:10).

Isbell, L.A. Is there no place like home? Ecological bases of dispersal in primates and their consequences for the formation of kin groups. In:Kinship and Behavior in Primates (Chapais, B. & Berman, C., eds.). Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 71-108.

Enstam, K.L. & Isbell, L.A. Microhabitat preference and vertical use of space by patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in relation to predation risk and habitat structure. Folia Primatologica 75:70-84.

Laurent, P., Hamdani, A., Braekman, J.-C., Daloze, D., Isbell, L.A., de Biseau, J.-C., & Pasteels, J.M. New 1-alk(en)yl-1,1,3,5-trihydroxycyclohexanes from the Dufour gland of the African ant Crematogaster nigricepsTetrahedron Letters 44:1383-1386.

Isbell, L.A., Cheney, D.L., & Seyfarth, R.M. Why vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) live in multi-male groups. In: The Guenons: Diversity and Adaptation in African Monkeys (Glenn, M. & Cords, M., eds.), Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, New York, pp. 173-187.

Enstam, K.L. & Isbell, L.A. Comparison of responses to alarm calls by patas (Erythrocebus patas) and vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) monkeys in relation to habitat structure. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 119:3-14.

Isbell, L.A. & Young, T.P. Ecological models of female social relationships in primates: similarities, disparities, and some directions for future clarity. Behaviour 139:177-202.

Enstam, K.L., Isbell, L.A. & De Maar, T. Male demography, female mating behaviour, and infanticide in wild patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). International Journal of Primatology 23:85-104.

Isbell, L.A. & Enstam, K.L. Predator (in)sensitive foraging in sympatric vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas): a test of ecological models of group dispersion. In: Eat or Be Eaten: Predation-Sensitive Foraging in Primates (Miller, L.E., ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 154-168.

Carlson, A.A. & Isbell, L.A. Causes and consequences of single-male and multi-male mating in free-ranging patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas).Animal Behaviour 62:1047-1058.

Mathy, J. & Isbell,  L.A. The relative importance of size of food and interfood distance in eliciting aggression in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Folia Primatologica 72:268-277.

Garraffo, H.M., Spande, T.F., Jain, P., Kaneko, T., Jones, T.H., Blum, M.S., Ali, T.M.M., Snelling, R.R., Isbell, L.A., Robertson, H.G., & Daley, J.W. Ammonia chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in structure determination of alkaloids, II. Tetraponerines from pseudomymecine ants. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 15:1409-1415.

Pruetz, J.D. & Isbell, L.A. Correlations of food distribution and patch size with agonistic interactions in female vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in simple habitats. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 49:38-47.

Isbell, L.A., Pruetz, J.D., Lewis, M., & Young, T.P. Rank differences in ecological behavior: a comparative study of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops). International Journal of Primatology 20:257-272.

Isbell, L.A., Pruetz, J.D., Nzuma, B.M., & Young, T.P. Comparing measures of travel distances in primates: methodological considerations and socioecological implications. American Journal of Primatology 48:87-98.

Isbell, L.A. & Pruetz, J.D. Differences between vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in agonistic interactions between adult females. International Journal of Primatology 19:837-855.

Isbell, L.A. Diet for a small primate: insectivory and gummivory in the (large) patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas pyrrhonotus). American Journal of Primatology 45:381-398.

Isbell, L.A., Pruetz, J.D., Lewis, M., & Young, T.P. Locomotor activity differences between sympatric patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops): implications for the evolution of long hindlimb length in HomoAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology 105:199-207.

Isbell, L.A., Pruetz, J.D., & Young, T.P. Movements of vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) as estimators of food resource size, density, and distribution. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 42:123-133.

Young, T.P., Stubblefield, C., & Isbell, L.A. Ants on swollen-thorn acacias: species coexistence in a simple system. Oecologia 109:98-107.

Isbell, L.A. East Africa: the cradle of humanity. In: Ecosystems of East Africa and their Conservation (McClanahan, T.R. & Young, T.P., eds.). Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 20-21.

Isbell, L.A. & Young, T.P. The evolution of bipedalism in hominids and reduced group size in chimpanzees: alternative responses to decreasing resource availability. Journal of Human Evolution 30:389-397.

Isbell, L.A. & Van Vuren, D. Differential costs of locational and social dispersal and their consequences for female group-living primates.Behaviour 133:1-36.

Isbell, L.A. Seasonal and social correlates of changes in hair, skin, and scrotal condition in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) of Amboseli National Park, Kenya. American Journal of Primatology 36:61-70.

Isbell, L.A. Predation on primates: ecological patterns and evolutionary consequences. Evolutionary Anthropology 3:61-71.

Isbell, L.A. The vervets’ year of doom. Natural History 103(8):48-55.

Young, T.P. & Isbell, L.A. Minimum group size and other conservation lessons exemplified by a declining primate population. Biological Conservation 68:129-134.

Isbell, L.A. & Young, T.P. Social and ecological influences on activity budgets of vervet monkeys, and their implications for group living.Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 32:277-385.

Isbell, L.A. & Young, T.P. Human presence reduces predation in a free-ranging vervet monkey population in Kenya. Animal Behaviour 45:1233-1235.

Isbell, L.A., Cheney, D.L., & Seyfarth, R.M. Are immigrant vervet monkeys, Cercopithecus aethiops, at greater risk of mortality than residents? Animal Behaviour 45:729-734.

Young, T.P. & Isbell, L.A. Sex differences in giraffe feeding ecology: energetic and social constraints. Ethology 87:79-89.

Isbell, L.A. Contest and scramble competition: patterns of female aggression and ranging behavior among primates. Behavioral Ecology 2:143-155.

Isbell, L.A., Cheney, D.L., & Seyfarth, R.M. Group fusions and minimum group sizes in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). American Journal of Primatology 25:57-65.

Isbell, L.A., Cheney, D.L., & Seyfarth, R.M. Costs and benefits of home range shifts among vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 27:361-358.

Isbell, L.A. Sudden short-term increase in mortality of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) due to leopard predation in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. American Journal of Primatology 21:41-52.

Isbell, L.A. Daily ranging behavior of red colobus (Colobus badius tephrosceles) in Kibale Forest, Uganda. Folia Primatologica 41:34-48.

Isbell, L.A. & Skorupa, J.P. Raiders in the dark. Animal Kingdom 6-7:12-14.